[Timbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of Gold] EBOOK / PDF

  • Paperback
  • 320
  • Timbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of Gold
  • Marq de Villiers
  • English
  • 26 August 2020
  • 9780771026478

Marq de Villiers Ü 0 Free read

Free download ☆ Timbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of Gold ¶ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Om the deep Sahara gold from Ghana and money from slave markets made it rich In part because of its wealth Timbuktu also became a centre of Islamic learning and religion boasting impressive schools and libraries that attracted scholars from Alexandria Baghdad Mecca and Marrakech The arts flourished and Timbuktu gained near mythic stature around the world capturing the imagination of outsiders and ultimately attracting the attention of hostile sovereigns who sacked the city three times and plundered it half a dozen The ancient city was invaded by a M. Long obsessed with Sudano Sahelian banco architecture I bought and read this book hoping to learn about that as well as Timbutku s centuries old role as the African continent s premier book repository and center of scholarship after the disturbing destruction of the Royal Library of Alexandria This book taught me little about the history of Timbuktu s fabled Islamic Libraries where camel meets canoe and I was also disappointed where the entire construction and maintenance of the three great mosues of Timbuktu the Sankore the Sidi Yahiya and the Djingareiber was done in only a few pages The maps also should be been zoomed in on so that they were legible without a magnifying glass What gave this book the three stars it got Well aside from getting my hopes up by putting Sudano Sahelian architecture front and center on the cover but lightly discussing it inside and never mentioning why many Americans have the expression from Kalamazoo to Timbuktu in their heads It was a famous song in the 1950 s the book is not without merit Lots of cool facts are inside Ijebu had an amazing wall 100 miles in circumference 65 feet tall with a huge moat and no white person told them how to make it Also the largest earthworks in the world are near Benin You learn a little about Gao and Djenne the Tauregs Mansa Musa Kanka Musa and the critical Songhai dynasty Timbuktu s golden dynasty Banco replaced grass shelters during the Songhai dynasty The book tells you the history of all the important things that were traded in Timbuktu which of course was also one of Africa s most important centers of trade for centuries I liked that the book gave the feeling of travelling to Timbuktu what it is like to get to and to visit and get to know For the record the Great Mosue of Djenne is far beautiful than the three mosues of Timbuktu Check it out it s one of the most beautiful buildings ever made

Free read Timbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of GoldTimbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of Gold

Free download ☆ Timbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of Gold ¶ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook The first book for general readers about the storied past of one of the world’s most fabled citiesTimbuktu the name still evokes an exotic faraway place even though the city’s glory days are long gone Unspooling its history and legends resolving myth with reality Mar de Villiers and Sheila Hirtle have captured the splendour and decay of one of humankind’s treasuresFounded in the early 1100s by Tuareg nomads who called their camp “Tin Buktu” it became within two centuries a wealthy metropolis and a nexus of the trans Saharan trade Salt fr. Timbuktu by Mar De Villiers and Sheila Hirtle is an engaging history of that fabled Saharan city its name once synonymous in the West with both remoteness and as a place of wealth beyond imagination of golden spires and wise and tremendously rich kings exerting a hypnotic attraction on the Mediterranean world It was similarly revered in the east as a major urban center in the Islamic world for centuries a nexus of caravan trade in Saharan salt gold from Ghana and slaves as well as a center of learning and scholarship Surprisingly at least for Western travelers past and present for all its great fame Timbuktu has always been a city made largely of mud and unpaved streets of sand Not a city made of gold reflecting its local earthly origins the city is all beiges and dun shading into the desert and scarcely distinguishable from it Though there are a few mosues and houses made of brick and some stone most buildings are mainly made of dried mud pis or pounded clay which the locals call banco Even the newer parts of town laid out in a grid are made of mud brick Sadly a shrinking population in the city has no money or manpower to repair an entire city of mud one that melts in the wet season rains unless protected by fresh plaster By the way the spines that appear on Timbuktu buildings like porcupine uills are actually stone beams which serve as in place scaffolds to help repair buildings when the rains come Timbuktu is even today a multi ethnic city reflecting its cosmopolitan past The authors provide a uick profile of many of the ethnic groups that make up the city including the Tuareg the most recalcitrant and farthest traveled of the Berbers the Mande people the dominant black African people along the Niger governed two of the most powerful ancient African empires and are the dominant ethnic group in Mali today the Fulani their origins reflecting a mixture of incoming Berbers and native Wolof as well as the Dogon and the Songhai I found the information provided on the landscape and surrounding region of Timbuktu particularly prior to its foundation and in its earlier years uite fascinating The Niger River used to flow much closer to the city and with greater volume Hippos once wallowed near the city Even astonishing a sizable forest once grew near Timbuktu with many travelers and residents reporting elephants That forest is now long gone to some degree caused by direct human activity Sonni Ali a ruler of Gao hewn down entire forests to construct boats to strike at his upriver enemies but uite possibly the forest was doomed in any event due to gradual human attrition and increasing desiccation Sadly though elephants appear to have been gone from the area for centuries others such as giraffes and lions vanished as recently as the 20th centuryAll too briefly the authors touch on the recent discoveries of settlements including dozens of large cities that were abandoned along the Niger seven or eight hundred years ago part of a trend reversing thinking in academic circles that euatorial Africa never developed cities major monuments or was in any way independent of Mediterranean trade Along the way Villiers and Hirtle provided in depth portraits of the nature of the three main types of trade that sustained the city White gold yellow gold and black gold were the basis of all Saharan trade as the demand for salt made trade initially possible gold financed it and the slaves made it work being both a tool and a luxury item as many rulers used gifts of slaves as incentives The authors visit a salt mine working not unlike how it did in the days of Timbuktu s golden ages the whole salt mining town of Taoudenni is salt the house are made of slabs of salt the roofs reed mats supported by polesWhile salt is still being mined and sold for local use gold no longer passes through the city Gold was the engine of Timbuktu s expansion African gold particularly alluvial gold from the Senegal and Niger Rivers became the essential lubricant of Mediterranean commerce as two thirds of the world s gold supply in the late Middle Ages came from West Africa While these areas still produce gold they have much diminished in importance thanks to modern mining techniues and productive gold fields elsewhere The city once had a rich scholastic tradition the authors describing the staggering numbers of ancient texts estimates range from 30000 to 300000 suirreled away in many areas of the city on topics as diverse as law medicine mathematics astronomy and religion many only now coming to the attention of researchers translators and preservationists who are struggling with meager funds to save these priceless books for the future The heart of the book though is the epic history of the city from its foundation in the early 11th century by Tuareg nomads a number of debated legends surround the founding of the city though the most common ones center around a well of Buktu or Tin buktu an old Tuareg woman who set up a camp in the dunes a few miles north of the Niger River as a convenient pasturing place that eventually became permanent through its rise in two golden ages as a wealthy and learned metropolis the first golden age began when the great and wealthy sultan Mansa Musa came to town in the middle 1300s and the second and significant golden age was several centuries later under the rule of the askias of Gao starting with Askia Mohammed in the 1490s The authors also recount the various conuests it has suffered how it was a destination during the great age of European exploration of Africa in the 19th century and how today it is a dusty decaying desert town its glorious past turned to dust by invasion conuest jihad and the long long debilitating passage of time

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Free download ☆ Timbuktu The Sahara's Fabled City of Gold ¶ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Oroccan army in 1600 beginning its long decline; since then it has been seized by Tuareg nomads and a variety of jihadists in addition to enduring a terrible earthuake several epidemics and numerous famines Perhaps no other city in the world has been as golden and as deeply tarnished as TimbuktuUsing sources dating deep into Timbuktu’s fabled past alongside interviews with Tuareg nomads and city residents and officials today de Villiers and Hirtle have produced a spectacular portrait that brings the city back to life From the Hardcover edition. This book recounts the history of Timbuktu and the region around it Timbuktu is where the Sahara meets the savannah and is close to the Niger River at its northern most reach It became a focal point of the caravan trade with a focus on gold salt and slaves along with other goods from North Africa the Mediterranean sub Saharan Africa the Middle East and beyond It was also a meeting point of cultures religions and ideas During periods of stability it was a city of learning and tolerance But it was also raided fought over and mismanaged many times The book also gives perspective to the current fighting in northern Mali and the region It is not new and probably involves a lot of the same issues that have been fought over before The writing does not uite live up to the fascinating information presented here