[The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler] Read Ç Alfred Adler

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  • The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler
  • Alfred Adler
  • English
  • 22 December 2020
  • 9780822602095

Alfred Adler æ 6 Free read

Free download ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB æ Alfred Adler Free read The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Alfred Adler æ 6 Free read G Jung Sigmund Freud Jean Piaget Otto Rank James Hillman Erich Fromm Karen Horney and Susan Isaacs Each volume is available on its own as part of a themed min. objective determiners such as biological factors and past history become relative to the goal idea they do not function as direct causes but provide probabilities only The individual uses all objective factors in accordance with his sty1e of life Their significance and effectiveness is developed only in the intermediary psychological metabolism so to speak 1 Adler had already taken the observable forward orientation of the individual and his concern with the future as the center of his dynamic psychology By now describing goals and the future as fictional he expressed in effect that this future was not the objective future but a subjective future as experienced in the present Thus he avoided the teleological dilemma of the determination of present events by something which remains in the future This solution is of course the one generally p 88 accepted today in one form or another Wolfgang Kohler stated it most succinctly from the point of view of Gestalt psychology when he said It is not the actual future the future as such toward which we are directed in our planning and in which we perceive our goals it is that part of an actually present phenomenal field which we call the future 62 p 380 Adler s fictional or subjective finalism or teleology does not violate Kurt Lewin s principle of the contemporaneity of motivation 68 p 34 Adler s fictional subjective goal is a present one it derives its great importance from the postulate that it is an ever present goal 1930a p 5 although it is not necessarily present in consciousness We can comprehend every single life phenomenon as if the past the present and the future together with a superordinated guiding idea were present in it in traces 1912a p iii If we translate as if into subjective we find that this sentence refers to the subjective past present and future as being present in the phenomenological field in tranceVaihinger Fictions are mental structures The psyche weaves this aid to thought out of itself for the mind is inventive see pp 77 78 Fictional structures are thus creations of the individual It is the true nature of the individual s hidden goal which constitutes according to Adler the essential content of the unconscious The term fictional goal also expressed Adler s conviction that the origin of the goal is in the last analysis not reducible to objective determiners Although the objective factors of heredity and environment organ inferiorities and past experiences are utilized by the individual in the process of forming his final goal the latter is still a fiction a fabrication the individual s own creation Such causality corresponds to soft determinism that is determinism from the inner nature of life as contrasted to hard determinism from external pressures alone William James according to Murphy 84 pp 644 645 Adler was not aware of the term soft determinism nor of Jaspers distinction between external objective causation and internal subjective causation see pp 13 14 When Adler rejects causality without ualification he is in fact rejecting hard determinism or external causation Thus each time the word cause or any of its derivatives is found below the reader should understand it to signify external objective causation the old causa efficiens It is only this which Adler rejected and not internal causation or the old causa finalisAdler developed a theory of personality based upon 1 inferiority feelings and inferiority complex 2 striving for superiority 3 style of life 4 social interest 5 birth order 6 fictional finalism 7 the creative self 8 masculine protest 9 the interpretation of dreams and 10 theory of psychotherapy Ni arte ni parte uses all objective factors in accordance with his sty1e of life Their significance and effectiveness is developed only in the intermediary psychological metabolism so to speak 1 Adler had already taken the observable forward orientation of the individual and his concern with the future as the center of his dynamic psychology By now describing goals and the future as fictional he expressed in effect that this future was not the objective future but a subjective future as experienced in the present Thus he avoided the teleological dilemma of the determination of present events by something which remains in the future This solution is of course the one generally p 88 accepted today in one form or another Wolfgang Kohler stated it most succinctly from the point of view of Gestalt psychology when he said It is not the actual future the future as such toward which we are directed in our planning and in which we perceive our goals it is that part of an actually present phenomenal field which we call the future 62 p 380 Adler s fictional or subjective finalism or teleology does not violate Kurt Lewin s principle of the contemporaneity of motivation 68 p 34 Adler s fictional subjective goal is a present one it derives its great importance from the postulate that it is an ever present goal 1930a p 5 although it is not necessarily present in consciousness We can comprehend every single life phenomenon as if the past the present and the future together with a superordinated guiding idea were present in it in traces 1912a p iii If we translate as if into subjective we find that this sentence refers to the subjective past present and future as being present in the phenomenological field in tranceVaihinger Fictions are mental structures The psyche weaves this aid to thought out of itself for the mind is inventive see pp 77 78 Fictional structures are thus creations of the individual It is the true nature of the individual s hidden goal which constitutes according to Adler the essential content of the Ni arte ni parte unconscious The term fictional goal also expressed Adler s conviction that the origin of the goal is in the last analysis not reducible to objective determiners Although the objective factors of heredity and environment organ inferiorities and past experiences are Noticias De Los Montoneros utilized by the individual in the process of forming his final goal the latter is still a fiction a fabrication the individual s own creation Such causality corresponds to soft determinism that is determinism from the inner nature of life as contrasted to hard determinism from external pressures alone William James according to Murphy 84 pp 644 645 Adler was not aware of the term soft determinism nor of Jaspers distinction between external objective causation and internal subjective causation see pp 13 14 When Adler rejects causality without Skin Talks ualification he is in fact rejecting hard determinism or external causation Thus each time the word cause or any of its derivatives is found below the reader should No hay as felices Verónica Rosenthal #3 understand it to signify external objective causation the old causa efficiens It is only this which Adler rejected and not internal causation or the old causa finalisAdler developed a theory of personality based Poesía reunida upon 1 inferiority feelings and inferiority complex 2 striving for superiority 3 style of life 4 social interest 5 birth order 6 fictional finalism 7 the creative self 8 masculine protest 9 the interpretation of dreams and 10 theory of psychotherapy

Free download The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler

The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler

Free download ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB æ Alfred Adler Free read The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Alfred Adler æ 6 Free read I set or as part of a specially priced 204 volume set A brochure listing each title in the International Library of Psychology series is available upon reuest. Old school psychology The Viennese doctor is blissfully ignorant of political correctness while writing about women children homosexuals and especially the poor neurotics Петербург upon reuest. Old school psychology The Viennese doctor is blissfully ignorant of political correctness while writing about women children homosexuals and especially the poor neurotics

Free download ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB æ Alfred Adler

Free download ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB æ Alfred Adler Free read The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Alfred Adler æ 6 Free read Routledge is now re issuing this prestigious series of 204 volumes originally published between 1910 and 1965 The titles include works by key figures such asC. Definitely one of the best books I ve ever read Though I studied philosophy at the university I ve always been a really avid reader of psychology I d known about Alfred Adler for a while as one of the Big Three founders of psychoanalysis along with Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung but I d never realized the depth and profundity of his thoughtHere s my summary of Alfred Adler s thought which is the content of the book For Adler to exist is to feel inferior What he means by this is that from the moment the human being is able to compare himself to others he is conscious of his relative feebleness and weakness in the face of massive grownups An upshot of the huge human brain is our ability to compare our own endowments and abilities with those of others and this ability develops very early In this way we all learn to be insecure to at least some degreeWe attempt to compensate for these feelings of inferiority by striving for superiority in his language This is rooted in Adler s appropriation of Nietzsche s concept of the will to power Contrary to the Darwinians of his day Nietzsche maintained that evolution is driven mostly fundamentally by a kind of upward striving force known as will to power rather than merely to survival Instead survival is merely an instance of a fundamental will to powerThis will to power in humans seeks above all to alleviate inferiority feelings Adler distinguishes between socially useful and socially useless forms of compensating for these feelings Socially useless forms involve compensating for feelings of inferiority by harming others in order to make oneself feel powerful The remedy for mental illness for Adler involves adopting socially useful styles of life which involve serving others and being a part of something larger than oneselfWhen the individual s will to power goes astray it can manifest itself in symptoms of what Adler calls neurosis an obsolete and horrible word Unlike Freud however Adler believed that neurosis is caused by socially useless attempts to compensate for inferiority feelings An example of something like this might involve someone wanting to become a dictator so he can dominate other people with this desire being rooted in a deep rooted sense of inferiority because he was abused by his father Instead the individual should compensate by using as a standard one s usefulness in contributing to the welfare in others Adler acknowledges that one s psychological system is necessarily going to be an expression of their life philosophy and he is uite open about his presuppositions in this respectIn biology compensation is understood as an increase in activity or size of a specific part of either an organ or organism which makes up for dysfunction or loss of another A woman feels unattractive because of what she thinks is a big nose and so she may obsessively engage in accentuating other parts of her body in order to draw attention away from the supposedly malformed organ and toward something which will give her feelings of superiority and alleviate painful feelings of inferiorityWhether physiological or psychical or both life proceeds by way of compensation one chemical increasing or decreasing to make up for an increase or decrease elsewhere metabolism slowing down during starvation to compensate for low amounts of food intake and a need to conserve calories On all levels of granularity the entire organism is complicit in ensuring that the relevant differentials are such as to maintain the stability homeostasis or euilibrium of a open emergent systemFor Adler the goal is not to not compensate since compensation is an essential component of what maintains the stability of euilibria but rather to compensate well As open emergent systems dependent upon a robust but delicate euilibrium continually deluged with one shock after another compensation is a regular fact of life So compensation doesn t have a negative connotation at all in Adler s system It s how emergent systems like us are even able to function This is true he argued on both a physiological and psychological level indeed his early work had much to do with feelings of inferiority resulting from faulty organs whereas he reversed the order in his later workCompensating well for Adler involves cultivating what he refers to as social feeling or social interest and involves taking one s focus off of one s own inferiority and instead throwing oneself into contributing to the welfare of others Adler himself was a Social Democrat and his political interests long preceded his career as a psychoanalyst but he later abandoned these views and the notion that humans are social creatures and reuire interpersonally meaningful relationships to maintain mental health is hardly a distinctly Marxist insightIndeed Adler s psychology is essentially a social psychology The human person develops in continual interaction with other individuals Increasing feelings of superiority and decreasing feelings of inferiority are centered around how we believe we are perceived by other people Compensating for these feelings byAs much as I love Adler I ve never really liked his writing style On the one hand I definitely appreciate his insistence on the importance of communicating ideas clearly so that the individual of ordinary intelligence can understand his teachings really of an Anglo American virtue than a Germanic one I m the other hand he is oftentimes so terse that his message ends up kind of vague and certainly inelegant I d also really like to see his ideas articulated within a rigorously systematic framework Whether this is necessarily a fault of the translation or of his own style I m not sure Be that as it may it is really not enough to warrant the omission of a starThough Adler appreciated the inferiority complex like no one before him except perhaps Nietzsche and Dostoevsky the only psychologist according to Nietzche s testimony from whom he had ever learned anything he could be really crassly reductionistic in a way not dissimilar to Freud to the point of being almost archaic That is he considers basically all forms of mental illness to be the result of lack of social feeling or social interest and socially useless attempts at attempting to compensate for inferiority feelings This is true he thought for schizophrenia for example which is obviously absurd Schizophrenia is now known to be highly though not entirely heritableI think his comments on homosexuality may be of than historical interest as with other psychodynamic complexes he attributes inversion or homosexuality to attempts to avoid inferiority feelings by defaulting to the same sex So he basically sees it as a kind of cop out or failure of nerve on the part of the homosexual While this stereotype is pretty widely known with respect to women Adler argues that men and women both exhibit psychic hermaphroditism and switch to attraction to the opposite sex out of insecurity As a Christian I do see homosexuality as sinful but even non Christian scientists understand that sexual orientation is only modestly heritableWhy not explore a largely or at least partially psychodynamics of such an orientation I ll admit I kind of chuckled at the effusively apologetic footnotes which stressed that Adler s views on homosexuality were presented only for historical accuracy but that Neo Adlerians reject Adler on this Even in the absence this is interestingly enough the spirit of the age Homosexuality was actually not removed from the DSM until 1973 But I digress Returning to the theme of the early experience of inferiority feelings the child may begin to cultivate socially useless behavioral patterns if he lacks the the courage to face head on what Alfred Adler reviews to as the three great problems of life friendship love and occupation Adler believed that failure in any of these areas produced neurosis and that failure in all of them produced psychosis which as we have said has been refuted